This important document is on the internet here for the first time. Bold emphasis has been added. In translating the handwritten notes of Rudolf Hoss, another problem arose, since he wrote in a mixture of old German script and the so-called new Hedwig hoess wife sexual dysfunction script adopted in the late nineteen-thirties in Nazi Germany. On April 16,Rudolf Franz Ferdinand Hoss - the Kommandant of the most infamous death camp - Auschwitz-Birkenau - was hanged after a lengthy trial in Warsaw, Poland, for "crimes committed against the Polish people.
By the judgment of history and by his own admission, Rudolf Hoss is the greatest mass murderer of all time. He was the founder and driving force in the development of the Auschwitz-Birkenau complex and the more than thirty subcamps of the sprawling Auschwik complex.
Hedwig hoess wife sexual dysfunction of books and stories about camp life in Auschwitz have been written describing the prisoners' experiences, but only one SS officer wrote at length about the camp from the SS viewpoint. These memoirs of Rudolf Hoss narrate the development and administration of the largest killing center ever created. Hoss wrote explanations of the camp regulations, described his impressions of various personalities with whom he dealt, and wrote at length about the implementation of the Final Solution.
The initial descriptions were written to help Hoss recall events that were brought up during his trial. The translated documents that constitute Death Dealer, with the exception of the appendices, were written by Rudolf Hoss with pencil on low-grade paper. When he completed a section, he wrote the month, the year, and his signature. Often he would just sign his last name - Hoss, or just simply H.
He wrote on one side of each sheet of paper, then turned the sheet over and continued on the back, numbering only the first page, designating it as page 1. Page 2 would really indicate that there were four sides written about each The briefest account was a half page about the SS tattoos. The longest section is about his life, which consists of sheets of paper, or pages.
The penciled writings usually begin with sharp clarity, deteriorating to a flattened-out scrawl. This tends to indicate that Hoss was not aUowed to keep a knife to sharpen the pencil.
He also retraced a weakly written word or phrase with a newly sharpened pencil to make the words more legible. In some cases, the aging of the paper has made the task of reading the penciled writings more difficult, but by no means impossible. The archival assembly of Hoss's writings are twice numbered, once by Hoss himself at the top or upper-left-hand corners, such asand once again in the lower-right or lower-left corner, such as a circled in red pencil.
Tadeusz Iwaszko, the original archivist from the very beginning of the Auschwitz Museum instated that, "It was necessary to put the manuscript in an order to facilitate microfilming and photocopying.
Since the memoirs of Hoss's life were the most requested, they were placed first, even though it was the last section Hoss wrote. The personalities he described follow.
As Jan Sehn and Hoss became more comfortable with each other, Sehn asked Hoss to write about some of the people and try to recall some of the documents that had been destroyed when Auschwitz was being evacuated because of the approaching Soviet armies.
Sehn also asked Hoss to write about some of the people who were responsible for the major decisions concerning the founding and construction of Auschwitz-Birkenau, such as Himmler, Pohl, and Eicke.
The others were added as requested by Sehn. Many have never been published anywhere before. After Hoss had completed the anecdotal sections, h e remarked to Sehn one day that there was nothing to do in his jail cell in Cracow. This comment spurred Sehn to suggest that Hoss write about himself. This section is often referred to by historians as the "Autobiography of Rudolf Hoss.
These have also never before been published in the United States and are presented in this book to provide the reader with a deeper look into Hoss the human being rather than Hoss the zealous Nazi who followed orders without question.
Just after his capture inthe British Security Police were able to extract a statement from Hoss by beating him and filling him with liquor. Hoss states in his autobiogrphy that he doesnt remember what was in that statement. They also state that even if the documents were written by Hoss, they were obviously done under duress from the "Communist authorities" in Poland. The
Hedwig hoess wife sexual dysfunction and the conclusions of these "historians" are absolute rubbish.
The documents written in Poland, the personal interviews given to psychiatrist G. Martin Gilbert during the Nuremberg trials, and Rudolf Hoss's blunt testimony during the trial itself are consistent with each other to such a degree that we can safely believe that the memoirs written in Poland are an elaboration of the Nuremberg testimony containing much more detail. Kremer, who also were at Auschwitz, and with personal accounts by prisoners in the essential facts. They differ only when Hoss attempts to recall exact dates and numbers of prisoners.
They also differ when Hoss writes about his part in the Final Solution. Hoss maintains that he was only following orders and being a good Nazi, and that he did this with no thought or regard to moral consequences because "Befehl ist Befehl" - "orders are Hedwig hoess wife sexual dysfunction therefore, they must be followed. It is only at the end of his autobiography, written almost two years after the war ended, that the moral implications of what Hoss did occurred to him and began to affect him consciously.
The two final letters to his wife and his children reveal the heavy burden of guilt that he was experiencing. Where Hdss does consciously lie is in regard "Hedwig hoess wife sexual dysfunction" his wife, Hedwig, and her knowledge of the mass killings, in order to protect her and their children from the inevitable postwar stigma and finger-pointing. This is evident by examining the statements made to psychiatrist Gilbert in and his last statements in Hoss revealed to Gilbert that one day at a party hosted at the Hoss villa, his wife overheard comments made by the Gauleiter of Silesia, Fritz Bracht, about the mass gassings occurring at Auschwitz-Birkenau.
Later that evening in their bedroom, she questioned him about what she had heard. Hoss told Gilbert that he answered his wife's questions. He said that this was the only time he broke Himmler's order about absolute secrecy and discussed the Final Solution with anyone.
Only Hoss and his wife know what took place that evening and what the contents of the conversation were. Thereafter, Frau Hoss refused to sleep in the same bed with her husband "and physical intimacy between the couple was rare. They became emotionally estranged from each other. The truth is that he did nothing to prevent it.
Some Kapos Hedwig hoess wife sexual dysfunction that he was joking and continued this practice. When Liebehenschel found out, he demoted them to ordinary prisoners and they were put in a work Kommando where they had to do physical labor.
The beatings at Auschwitz stopped. Therefore, the truth is that Hoss allowed the beatings and the terror to continue because it served his purpose of maintaining camp discipline in the tradition of Theodore Eicke. Although Hoss writes negatively about the punishments Eicke inflicted on the prisoners, he fails to mention that the camp regulations and punishments were formulated by Hoss himself.
He also fails to mention the executions of prisoners found after escaping, or the Stehbunker," a punishment cell about three feet square in which could only stand or crouch and into which one to five prisoners were crammed with no food, no water, no light, and only the air that filtered through the cracks in the closed wooden door at floor level. The reader need only compare what Hoss wrote to the chronology at the back of this book Hedwig hoess wife sexual dysfunction see where Hoss tries to protect himself.
Hoss also hides the fact that he and his family never had to sacrifice their wants or needs because of the enormous treasure of food and clothing that the trainloads of Jews brought to Auschwitz. In the midst of starvation, disease, and death the Hoss family had everything. UParadise" is what Frau Hoss called Auschwitz. Even after her husband was promoted to Berlin, Frau Hoss stayed in her villa at Auschwitz. Despite these and other omissions, the Hoss memoirs are remarkable in their graphic portrayal of many of the events at Auschwitz.
Hoss's descriptions of the entire gassing procedure leave one shaking one's head and wondering how he could retell and in many cases psychologically relive these gruesome stories, especially since he was the cause of it all.
Hoss acknowledges his part and simply states, History will mark me as the greatest mass murderer of all time.
There is no doubt that from the very beginning of his capture Hoss realized that he would be executed. He states this in his autobiography. Therefore, no serious argument can be made that Hoss concocted the gassing stories to help the Allies find the major Nazi war criminals guilty, as some claim.
In the summer ofI am unable to recall the exact date, I was suddenly ordered by Himmler's adjutant to repon directly to the Reichsfuhrer SS1 in Berlin. Contrary to his usual custom, his adjutant was not in the room. Himmler greeted me with the following: We the SS have to carry out this order.
The existing extermination sites in the East2 are not in a position to carry out these intended operations Hedwig hoess wife sexual dysfunction a large scale. I have, therefore, chosen Auschwitz for this purpose.
First of all, because of the advantageous transport facilities, and secondly, because it allows this area to be easily isolated and disguised. I had first thought of choosing a higher-ranking SS officer for this job so as to avoid any difficulties with someone who doesn't have the competence to deal with such a difficult assignment.
You now have to carry out this assignment. It is to remain between the two of us. It is a hard and difficult job which requires your complete commitment, regardless of the difficulties which may arise. You will learn the further. In the German text Hoss almost always referred to Heinrich Himrnler by his title rather than his name. It would be equivalent to field marshal, or a five-star general in the U. Himmler was most likely referring to the special squads caUed Einsatzgruppen who were killing civilians in the Soviet Union, since there were no extermination centers in the Hedwig hoess wife sexual dysfunction per se, in the Soviet Union.
The evidence that Breitman dismisses is monumental: These and hundreds of other pieces of evidence are overlooked by Breitman. Simply put, Breitman is wrong in his conclusion that it was not until the summer of that Hoss received the order from Himmler. The administrative departments involved will be notified by me at the appropriate time.
You are sworn to the strictest silence regarding this order. Not even your superiors are allowed to know about this. After your meeting with Eichmann I Hedwig hoess wife sexual dysfunction you to immediately send me the plans of the intended installations.
All the Jews within our reach must be annihilated during this war. If we do not succeed in destroying the biological foundation of Jewry now, then one day the Jews will destroy the German people. After receiving this far-reaching order, I returned to Auschwitz immediately without reporting to my superiors at Oranienburg.
A short time after that Eichmann came to see me at Auschwitz.